The Different Schools in Psychology
There are different schools in psychology, among of these are Structuralism, Functionalism, the Gestalt Psychology, Behaviorism, Psychoanalysis, Humanism and Cognitive Psychology.
Structuralism is lead by Wudnt and Titchener. This school of psychology is primarily deals with the study of the element which form the structure of the mind. Structuralist used the method of “Introspection”.
Functionalism was developed at the University of Chicago. It was lead by John Dewey and James Angell. It also developed at the Harvard University with William James. Functionalist are involved in studying the functions of consciousness. They believed that the learning process was aided by consciousness. The study of functionalist also deals with personality, intelligence and other practical problem related to the field of education. The functionalist is interested in the learning process because the learning process is one of the means of adjustment of man to the environment where he live.
Gestalt Psychology is lead by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Wertheimer and Koffha (German psychologist). The Gestalt psychologist analyzes experience by configuration, whole or pattern. These psychologists give importance to the wholeness in the process of learning. They give emphasis that the whole is greater than the sum to its parts. Furthermore, they give emphasis of form in perception, they believed that shapes and forms need to be describe by the organization of the entire perceptual field.
Behaviorism was lead by John B. Watson. He is a professor of psychology at John Hopkins University. The psychologists believed that psychology should be concerned with behaviors. They stressed that behaviors are observable and they are not conscious experience that is subjective and only known to the person involved.
Psychoanalysis was developed by Dr. Sigmund Freud. He developed this theory explaining the physical, nervous and emotional disorders with the organic explanations. Sigmund Freud is interested on the sub-conscious mind.
Humanism as contrary to the humanist and the behaviorist believed that every person is destined to be good. This psychologist also believed that criminality as well as delinquency are just caused by the environment that they claimed to be unhealthy and are inadequate for the proper development of the individual. Humanist believed that every individual has desire for what is good.
Cognitive Psychology is a blend of humanism and behaviorism. It gives special attention on thought process, the reasoning as well as problem solving. Cognitive psychologists are concerned on understanding the basic methods of the operation of the human brain.