Flash memory is the high-density device and is a non-volatile memory. Flash memory is fast in reading writing data. This is because it writes data in chunks or blocks. Flash memory is an electrically re-programmable device. The contents from the flash memory are erased in blocks and not in bytes. The block size can range from 256 bytes to 16 KB. Flash memory can replace hard in portable computers. In this context, flash memory is available as a PC card that you can plug into the PCMCIA slot.
PC BIOS chip in the system is the flash memory. Other flash memory products are PCMCIA memory cards and memory cards for video game systems. Some of the latest memory cards include Multimedia card, Secure Digital, CompactFlash, Memory Stick, xD-Picture Card, SmartMedia. In recent times the price of Flash memory has dropped significantly and thus people are using Flash memory often. Memory cards a very common type of Flash Memory used precisely in cell phones and is available in a wide range of storage capacity making it very easy for the end users.
Understanding Cache Levels
Cache levels refer to the electronic pathways and connecting circuits via which cache memory is connected to the CPU. They also indicate the physical closeness of cache memory to CPU. Most of the modern computers use one or two cache levels so that processor does not have to wait for longer time for information from the memory. Different types of cache levels are:
L1 - L1 cache is referred to the cache which is built in the processor. This is the fastest cache in the computer. This cache is also known as primary cache or internal cache. The most common size of this type of cache memory is 8 KB to 64 KB.
L2 - L2 cache is located outside the processor. It is commonly present on the motherboard. If L2 cache is located on the processor then the cache on the motherboard is referred as L3 cache. The most common size of this type of cache memory is 64 KB to 2 MB. L2 cache consists of two components:
Data Store - This is the actual area where the cache data is stored.
Tag RAM - This is a small area used to keep a map of the addresses of the system memory which are cached in the data store.
L3 - Today, nearly all modern processors have L2 cache on them, thus the cache on the motherboard is referred to as L3 cache.
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