Facts About Brazil (Geography)

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Facts about Brazil, Geography of Brazil.Brazil is the largest country in South America, and the fifth largest in the world, both by area and population.Brazil geographical facts.

The Federal Republic of Brazil is the largest and only Portugese speaking country in South America.

Spanning three time zones,it is the fifth largest country in the world both by geographical area ( 8,514,877 sq km ) and population ( 192,098152 ).

It's eastern coast is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and measures 7,491 km.

Bordered by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana to the north, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru to the west and Paraguay and Uruguay to the south.

It is governed by a Federal Republican Government, with a president at it's head, who is both head of state and head of government, who is voted for from four main political parties.

It's legal system is based on a federal constitution, with all states having their own constitution.

The highest court in the land is the Federal Tribunal, which was the first in the world to be televised, and it's daily itinarary announced on Twitter.

The country is divided into 26 states, 1 federal district and 5,564 municipalities.




The Brazilian topography is diverse, with much of the country lying between 200 and 800 metres above sea level.It's interior covers most of the South American continent

The country has the world's most extensive river system, with 8 of it's major drainage basins draining into the Atlantic Ocean.It's largest river is the Amazon, the second longest in the world, at 6,516 km.

The south-east of the country has a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges, with the highest elevation being 1,200 m.The country's 3 main mountain ranges are situated here, the Mantiquera range, the Espinhaco range and the Serra de Mar range.

Brazil's large interior comprises of many eco-systems, one of which is the largest in the world. the Amazon rainforest.

It's rainforests occur mainly in the north-west, with semi arid deserts in the north-east, and tropical savannah in it's south central region.


                                                    The Amazon rainforest.


Brazil has five climatic groups, equitorial, tropical,semi-arid, highland tropical and temperate.

The Equator runs through the north of the country and the Tropic of Capricorn through the south.

The north of the country comprises of a mainly equatorial climate, with an average temperature of around 25 c and variations of rainfall.

Central Brazil has a more seasonal climate, with moderate temperatures and a seasonal rainfall.

The south of the country has temperate conditions, with temperatures never falling below 18c, cool winters, a four month rainy season and snow at elevated areas.


                                        Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge, Brasilia.


In many areas it's natural environment is threatened by development. Dams have flooded large valleys, mines have polluted the landscape and agriculture, logging, oil and gas extraction and climatic change, has caused extensive damage to it's natural heritage.

it's natural resources are bauxite, gold,iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum and gas.

The country's main arable crops are coffee beans, soya beans and oranges, with it's major farming industry coming from beef cattle.

Scientists believe that there are over four million plant and animal species in Brazil, and that it has the world's most diverse population of birdlife and amphibians.

Brazil is home to the world's largest population of mammals, with over 500 species, Primates, 77 species and Fish, 3000 species.

The country hosts 6 biosphere reserves in an attempt to help it's many ailing species that are threatened with extinction due to lost habitat and contaminated water, which is prevalent in the country due to mining and natural resources extraction.


                                                     Landmarks of Sao Paulo, Brazil's largest city.


The Brazilian people are made up of several ethnic groups, consisting of the largest white population in the tropics and the largest black population outside of Africa, both of which decended from the original Portugese settlers and their African slaves.

Brazil also has the largest number of uncontacted people in the world, consisting of around 60 indiginous tribes.

The largest metropolitan areas are in the southern coastal cities of Sao Paulo,population 10,990,249 and Rio de Janeiro population 6,161047. the country's capital is Brasilia, situated in the centre of the country which has a population of 2,557,158.

The country has a population density of 22 per sq km.

The country's literacy rate is 90 %.


Portugese is the official language of Brazil. Brazilian Portugese has had it's own development, having been influenced by the Amerindian and African languages, resulting in a marked difference from the language spoken in it's mother country of Portugal.

One other language has been granted with co-officiality, in the municipality of Sao Gabriel de Coehoeira, Nheengatu.

There are another 180 Amerindian languages spoken in the country. 


                                                             Map of Brazil, showing it's 26 states.


Brazil has a total of 1.7 million kilometres of road of which 96,353 kilometres are paved.

The country has a rail network of 29,295 kilometres and 50,000 kilometres of navigable waterways.

The country is served by way of 3,442 airports of which 734 have runways.


                                         Rio De Janeiro's Christ the Redeemer Statue.


Brazilians have complete freedom of religion, with Catholocism being the most dominant, with 73.89 % of the population following the religion, making Brazil the largest Catholic country in the world.

As well as other Christian religions, there are small communities of people following Islam, Judaism and traditional African religions.



One cannot mention Brazil without touching on the country's passion, Football.

It's national team is ranked second in the world, with the team having been in seven football World Cup finals,and winning the Football World Cup five times, as well as countless South American titles.

The country will be hosting the 2014 fifa-world-cup, a competition Brazil has hosted once before in 1950.

Brazil will also be hosting the 2016 Olympic Games, the first South American country to do so.

Currency; Real.

Int TLD. .br

Call code. +55

Time zone. x3. UTC - 2, - 3 - 4.





                                                            © D.B.Bellamy.January.2010.

                                                   All Images courtesy of wikimedia commons.