The Three Kinds of Government That Were Established by the Americans in the Philippines
There were three kinds of government that were established by the Americans in the Philippine archipelago during the American period. These kinds of governments are the Military government, the Civil Government and the Commonwealth government.
American rule of the Philippines began during the Spanish American war in 1898, when the United States defeated Spain and Spain ceded possession of the Philippines to the United States. Following the defeat of Spain, the Philippines did not want another colonial ruler and went to war with the United States. Just two days before the U.S. congress ratified the treaty in Paris, Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo started a war with the United States.
A terrible time in history as many Filipinos died in the war and during the ensuing famine and disease as the war lasted between 1899 and 1902.
The Military Government is the first government that was established by the Americans. When they captured the city of Manila in the month of April year 1898, the Military rule was started. The Military government was established because of the existence of war. This government had executive, legislative as well as judicial powers. The highest authority in the land is the Military Governor; the Military Governors who serve in this government are Gen. Wesley Meritt, Gen. Elwell Otis and Gen. Arthur McArthur.
The second kind of government that was established is the Civil Government. The former Military Government was ended by the Spooner Amendment; giving the way to the new Civil Government that was inaugurated in the 4th day of July, year 1901. The highest authority in this government is the Civil Governor which was later change to the title of Governor-general on the 6th day of February, year 1905. Judge H. William Taft became the first Civil-Governor; he was followed by Luke F. Wright who became the first American to have the title of Philippine Governor-General. Wright was followed by Governor-General Frank Murphy; Murphy also became the first High Commissioner of the United States to the Philippines upon the inauguration of the Commonwealth Government.
The third government that was established by the Americans is the Commonwealth Government in pursuant to the act of the Congress of the United States on the 24th day of March year 1934; this is also known as the Tydings-McDuffie Law.
The Commonwealth Government serves as a transition government in the preparation for the Philippine Independence. The Tydings-McDuffie Law provided a transition of about ten years for the Commonwealth Government to exercise political power until in the 4th day of July year 1946, when the independence of the Philippines would be proclaimed.
Meanwhile, in the 15th day of November year 1935, the Philippine Government was inaugurated; the first national election followed under the constitution of 1935 that was held on the 12th day of September year 1935. The National Election had made Manuel L. Quezon as the President of the Philippines.
The Commonwealth Government in the Philippines was a republican form under the presidential type of government.
This government functioned in exile during World War II in Washington D.C; it was reestablished in Manila after the war in the year 1945.