Speaking with a Definite Purpose: Informative, Inspirational and Entertaining Speeches
You always speak with a definite purpose in mind. Therefore, it is the purpose that determines the kind of speech you will give on a particular occasion that requires it.
The Informative Speech
This is a speech to inform. Its primary purpose is to present facts and opinions to an audience. In this kind of talk, the speaker ordinarily does not assume the responsibility of inducing his audience to believe the information, but he maintains that the presentation of it in a clear, logical, and understandable manner fulfills his obligation of speaking.
In the informative speech, the speaker's intention to inform the audience is often blended with his desire for audience belief. For this reason, the emphasis is placed on the arrangement of information and the strength of the speaker's statements which will generally lead the audience toward definite conclusions which they are induced to believe in and on the desire to share some knowledge or information.
When preparing for this kind of speaking, try asking yourself this question. Do I know more about this subject than my audience? Will the members of the audience take kindly to my instructing or informing them on this topic? Does the subject lend itself to instruction or information as a general end? Does the occasion permit me to have instruction or information as the dominant purpose?
Typical examples of this type of speeches are: classroom lectures, demonstration talks, explanations of techniques, procedures, systems, values, etc.
The informative speech is fundamental to all other types of speaking with a purpose, for one cannot accomplish his objective to convince, to impress, to inspire, to actuate or to entertain unless the audience is thoroughly informed of the subject and the occasion of the speech.
The Inspirational Speech
Speeches whose aim is to impress or to elevate the spirit are inspirational in nature. They arouse in the listeners emotional associations.
Usually, speeches of inspiration are elevating and enthusiastic. They include a great deal of emotion and they are generally filled with praise of the audience's belief and attitudes. Many inspirational speeches have raised the audience's emotions to a higher pitch when they connote sincerity and humility combined with a religious motif. Also, when they aim at building the morale, inspirational speeches increase the zest, enthusiasm, and fervency of the audience to achieve their goals.
Typical examples of this kind of speaking are funeral orations, short "pep" talks given by coaches to their players, valedictory addresses, religious sermons, etc.
The Entertaining or Graceful Speech
This speech of entertainment has for its main purpose the enjoyment of the audience by telling them light-hearted or funny stories. The usual occasions for this kind of speaking are dinners and social meetings.
Frequently, an entertainment speech will be combined with a speech of information such as a travelogue or a popular science lecture wherein humorous stories or anecdotes are injected to make the audience laugh. Useful tools for presenting an entertaining speech are satires, exaggerations, understatements, and descriptions.
Examples of entertainment speeches are after-dinner toast and travelogues.