Ring TopologyFitness Gear & Equipment
In Ring topology, each device is connected to adjacent devices forming a circle. Data flows in only one direction, clockwise or anti-clockwise. Each device in the ring topology acts as a repeater. It amplifies the signal transmission and transmits it to the next device.
Basic Structure of Ring Topology
All devices are connected to each other in the form of a closed loop like ring. Each device has only two neighbors for communication purpose one is upstream and another is downstream. Data travels through many points before reaching the destination which makes it inefficient network compared to a star network. For example, consider a ring network having eight devices. If device 1 wants to transmit data to device 3, data must travel from device 1, through device 2 and then to its destination at device 3.
The ring topology is used to implement the token ring network at 4 or 16 Mbps. In token ring network, a special signal or a small message called Token is continually passed from one device to another. The device which has the token is allowed to transmit data over the network. Data is extracted by the appropriate device and the acknowledgment is sent back to the transmitting device. The receipt is removed and empty token is passed on to another device to transmit data. This topology also sends data on priority basis where messages of higher priority are sent before messages with lower priority. The nodes on a Token-Ring are connected electrically or optically in ring structure. But physically they are always connected in a star configuration to a hub which is also called as MAU (Multistation Access Unit). It is a transceiver device that provides electrical and optical connection between the devices and the network. As soon as the devices are activated, they are connected to the ring by MAU. It also removes a non-functioning device from the ring.
Dual Ring Topology
In ring topology, single ring is used whereas dual ring network topology consists of two concentric rings, primary I and secondary, to connect each device on a network. Primary ring carries data in one direction whereas secondary ring carries data in the opposite direction. Secondary ring is used if primary ring stops working. Thus, the secondary ring is redundant. In dual ring topology, it is difficult to add new devices. For this, each station should have two transmitter ports and two receiver ports.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Topology
In ring topology, collisions are avoided as only one device is allowed to transmit at a time. Bad network cards or improper hub units can still affect the network.
Advantages of ring topology are:
• Easier to mange as compared to Bus network Handles large volume of traffic
• Very reliable and offers great speed
• Provides a good communication over a long distance
• No terminators are required
Disadvantages of ring topology are:
• More cable wires compared to bus topology are required
• One faulty device affects the entire network
• Addition and changes of devices can affect the network
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