Research: Its Conditions, Methods, Fields and Classification
Research is the systematic, intelligent treatment of a problem for which the data or methods needed for solution are either unsatisfactory or lacking.
Three situations which may stimulate research
1. When the solution of the problem is unsatisfactory
2. When the solution of purpose is attainable provided that the value
of the result is not prohibitive
3. A problem must be within the physical and mental capabilities of the research
Three Conditions of Research
1. Research problem
Points or guides in the selection of suitable research problems
- Experience in the field of study
- Time, personnel and facilities required
- Expense and financial resources
- Broadness of the problem
- Economic value
2. Creative Ability or Mentality
Creative ability or mentality is the faculty possessed by a human being for integrating facts or impressions or feelings resulting from experience into a new form. A researcher must have the talent to create new things based from experience and technical know-how.
3. Systematic Method of Treatment
Systematic method of treatment begins with the analysis and definition of the problem and continuous throughout all stages of development. It involves: (a) the determination of the kind of data required; (b) the selection of the means of obtaining these data; and (c) devising the procedures by which the data are manipulated to arrive at a problem.
Methods of Research (steps)
(a) Gathering of facts based on definite general assumptions.
(b) Development of hypothesis based on intuition, analysis and observation.
(c) Manipulation of facts and hypothesis in a systematic manner consistent with
the general assumption.
(d) Reaching a conclusion upon which action could be taken.
Fields and Types of Research
- Pure Research – research usually in the basic science which is motivated by curiosity and is uninhibited by any concept of practical application.
- Applied Research – includes all research directed towards a definite commercial application.
- Industrial Research – includes all technological activities comprised in theoretical correlations, laboratory investigations, product elevations and product process and apparatus development up to the point of detail design for a specific plant for production for the market.
- Exploratory Research – consists of investigation of promising leads usually in the early stages of solving a problem in order to determine which lead is to be pursued intensively. It maybe a part of fundamental, industrial or applied research.
Classification of Research
- According to fields within which they lie
o Scientific Research
o Technological Research
o Economic Research
- According to Kinds of Facilities
o Laboratory Research
o Pilot Plant Research
o Field Research
o Literature Research
o Statistical Research
- According to Areas of Research
o Product Research
o Process Research
o Market Research
o Raw Material Research
o Waste Disposal and Pollution Research
o Organizational Research
Reference: Review Class Handouts (ERPI), 1979.