Principles and Methods of Teaching: Types of Appreciation
Appreciation can be classified into four types - the intellectual, the aesthetic, the moral and ethical, and the religious.
This type of appreciation is directly experienced in marveling and appreciating natural creations in the environment.
It is usually derived from conditions or state of affairs that are artistic and inspiring and are found in subjects like literature, music, art and dramatic presentations. Enjoyment comes from something beautiful. These may be rhythm and grace in dance, harmony of colors in a painting, proportion in a sculpture and blending of sound in a musical composition. Subject matter that provides and emphasizes good tastes, high ideals, and love of the beautiful should be developed.
Since ethical values are universal and social appreciation comes from satisfaction in recognizing moral qualities of goodness and truth, this type of appreciation should be developed. This is a way of developing ethical character and good citizenship, ethical values, patriotism, and love of country provide materials for developing ethical-social relationships.
This type of appreciation stems from the recognition and admiration of the technique of a pianist of the creative mind that produces the creation. One may admire the dexterous, skillful hand of a surgeon, admire the technique of a pianist or the creative mind that produces a literary masterpiece or bring the existence of a scientific discovery.
Procedure that may be Observed in Appreciation Lesson
The teacher and the learners should be in a state of readiness. The teacher must exercise sound judgment in deciding whether preparation step should be a day before or several days before the actual appreciation lesson.
The Lesson Proper
- Immediate preparation: When all the necessary preparation has been adequately met, the teacher should motivate learners. This is usually done by presenting the objectives of the lesson.
- The period of appreciation: The first impression is very important. It is assumed that the teacher when presenting literary piece of poem can be read or recite with proper expression and feelings and emote or portray in acting the characters of a selection.
- Intellectual discussion: This is the presentation that is followed by a check-up of what the learners understood. This is the time when the learners discuss intellectually the literary lesson or poem.
- Aesthetic discussion: The teacher should encourage the learners to identify and tell the class what they consider beautiful in the literary piece or in the poem. It is also important to discuss how and why the selections of poem again in order to appreciate and consequently enjoy.
- Reproduction: This is the last step in an appreciation lesson. If it was well-presented and well-taught, undoubtedly, the learners will have the enthusiasm, determined effort and desire to memorize the poem or internalize some beautiful passages in the literary piece. A story that is well-appreciated by the learners may be reproduced in a dramatic presentation.
Some Suggestions for Developing Appreciation
Some teachers perceive that it is more difficult to teach appreciation lessons than other types of lessons. Perhaps the following suggestions that may facilitate mental readiness, positive attitude and determined effort of the learners can play an important role.
- Choose materials and learning activities that the learners are interested in which they can enjoy. Examples are group singing, choral reading, dramatization or watching live television programs.
- Since appreciation is a personal experience, the learner must participate directly in the learning activity to derive emotional feeling and satisfaction.
- Beautiful lines full of appeal and emotion should encourage the learners to commit to memory.
- Appreciation lessons and activities should be informal. The learners enjoy the learning activity when they have sufficient freedom.
- Follow up the activities that will deepen the pleasurable response of the first impression. In case of poems, the learners may be encouraged to write or compose poetic lines or stanzas. To a certain extent, the success of an appreciation lesson will depend on the teacher's knowledge of what is to be learned and appreciated, the personal appreciation of the literary piece or poem by the teacher himself, the motivation and stimulation of the learners, and the learner's encouragement to discuss freely the parts worth appreciating without the teacher's influence.
While it is difficult to measure the results of appreciation lessons, there are certain observable outcomes in appreciation. The enjoyment that learners experience contributes immensely to the mental health and development. Tastes are refined; settlement and ideals are developed as well as ethical character and good citizenship.