International Trade Vs. Inter-regional Trade
International trade vs. inter-regional trade
The swap of goods and services involving different nations is termed as International Trade. On the other hand, trade of goods and services within a nation is known as Inter-regional Trade.
What difference then does it make to the theory of trade whether these goods are made in the same country or in different countries? Why is a separate theory of international trade needed? Well, domestic and foreign trade -are really one and the same. They both imply exchange of goods between persons. They both aim at achieving increased production through division of labor.
There are, however, a number of things which make a difference between foreign trade and domestic trade. They are as under:—
1. Immobility of Factors of Production. Labor and capital do not move as freely from one country to another as they do within the same country. Much more difficult so when a foreign frontier has to be crossed. Hence, disparities in cost of production can’t be eliminated by shifting men along with money. The consequence is the moving of goods.
2. Different Currencies. Each nation has a special currency. India for instance has the rupee, U.S.A., the dollar, Germany the mark, Italy the lira, Spain the peso, Japan the yen and so on. Hence, business between countries increases complications missing in internal trade.
The important fact is not the different moneys so much as the possibility of change of their value. If exchange rates were fixed, currencies convertible, and both were expected to remain so, one currency was as good as another. But in actual practice exchange rates change and complicate the matter.
The possibility of variations in the exchange rates between different currencies increases the risks and thereby discourages the movement of the factors of production, particularly that of capital between different countries.
3. Restrictions on Trade. Trade between different countries is not free. Very often there are restrictions imposed by custom duties, exchange restrictions, fixed quotas or other tariff barriers. For example, our own country has imposed heavy duty on the import of motor cars, wines and liquors and other luxury goods,
4. Separate Markets. National markets of different countries are usually separated due to difference in usage, habits, tastes, terms of sale, etc., e.g., the British drive to the left and the French drive to the right. Therefore, the British use the right-hand drive cars and the French left-hand drive cars. This makes the markets for automobiles effectively separated. Similarly, in some countries goods are designed in inches, feet and yards while in others in terms of metric measurements. But, there is no such difficulty as between different regions of the same country. All this creates a difference between international and inter-regional Trade.
Sister Cities Trading
Recently many cities in the Unites States have become sister cities with other cities around the world. For example, the city of Denver is a sister city to 10 different cities around the world that include Kunming, China, Axum, Ethiopia, Ulan Bator, Mongolia and other cities in Mexico, India, France, and others.
These sister cities provides a great trade avenue for both areas of commerce. Many cities have the sister cities that they trade goods with, not to mention states also trade between other countries. It has truly become a global economy. This brings together communities and trade which is beneficial to both cities and countries.