History of Computers-From First Generation Computer to Super Computer
The word "Computer" has evoked great myth over the past many years and these operating systems are considered among highly privileged and intelligent members of our society. Computers is used in many fields, like architect use computers for interior design, students use computers for studying difficult subjects, police department use computers to know more information about criminals and to track them down. At the same time computers are also used for inventory, banking transaction, financial accounting etc. Computers are also used in weather forecasting, agriculture etc.
First Generation Computer:
The First Generation of digital computers were developed in the early 1940s and were using vacuum tube logic circuitry. The speed of this computer was measured in milliseconds (thousands of a second). The size of the computers was very big, failure rate was very high & reliability was very low. It had no external storage, internal memory was very limited & only machine language could be used.
Second Generation Computer
The Second Generation of computers was built in 1960s and was built using transistors. Its speed was measured in microseconds (millionth of a second). Its size was very big, failure rate was very high & reliability was also very low like the First Generation Computers. It had magnetic tape and punched cards, and internal storage was limited. The languages used were Fortran & Cobol and were operated for scientific purposes
Third Generation Computer
The Third Generation of Computers was built between 1965 and 1970 and was built using I.C. Its speed was measured in nanoseconds (billionth of a second). It's size was medium, failure rate was low and reliability was high. It had magnetic disks and drums, and internal storages were good. The languages used were Fortran IV & Cobol 68 and were operated for administrative purposes.
Fourth Generation Computer
The Fourth Generation Computers were built from 1971 onwards and were built by L.S.I.C. Its speed was measured in pico seconds (10 raise to twelfth part of a second). It was small in size, failure rate was very low and reliability was very high. It had magnetic disks and drums, and internal storages was high. The languages used were Fortran 77 & Cobol 74 and were operated for commercial purposes.
It was developed in third generation of computers. It was capable of carrying out large number of functions like receiving data, processing and sorting the results and outputting the required results. The first Microcomputer was the model 4004 produced by Intel corporation in 1972. It had a silicon chip which performed all the operations and hence it had been names Microcomputer. Example (Personal Computer).
Minicomputer, Mainframe computer, Supercomputer
After this generation of computers, there have been many new systems that came into existence. Though these systems were slightly better than each one, they were having almost the same properties.
These are slightly larger than micros and have a higher processing speed as well as higher data storage capacity. Example NORSK DATA, PRIME.
A very large general-purpose computer, its capacity and processing power is higher than a minicomputer. Example CDC CYBER.
A very powerful mainframe computer used for high speed mathematical tasks. It is more powerful than a mainframe computer.
This the next generation super computer.