Flora and Fauna in Bangladesh
Flora and fauna refer to plant and wildlife, respectively. The indigenous plant and wildlife of a geographical region is often referred to as that region’s flora and fauna. The floras of the earth produce the oxygen that is breathed by the fauna and in turn, the fauna exhale the carbon dioxide that the floras need to live. One cannot live without the other, and humans cannot live without either; hence their importance.
Bangladesh has the plant and animal life typical of a tropical and riverine swamp.The landscape, which for most of the year is lush green, is dotted with palms and flowering trees. The large forest area of the Sunderbans in the southwest is the home of the endangered Bengal tiger; there are also cheetahs, leopards, crocodiles, elephants, spotted deer, monkeys, boars, bears, pheasants, and many varieties of birds and waterfowl.
The Magpie Robin is the National Bird of Bangladesh and it is common and known as the Doyel or Doel. It is a widely used symbol in Bangladesh, appearing on currency notes and a landmark in the city of Dhaka is named as the Doyel Chatwar (meaning: Doyel Square).The national flower of the country is water lily, which is known as Shapla.
Fauna or wild life in Bangladesh:
Bangladesh can boast of being the habitat to more than 650 species of birds, almost half of those found on the entire subcontinent. Tucked in between the Indian subcontinent and the Malayan peninsulas, Bangladesh attracts both Indian species in the west and north of the country, and the Malayan species in the east and south-east. It is also conveniently located for the migratory birds heading south towards Malaysia and Indonesia and those moving south west to India and Sri Lanka. In addition, there are a number of Himalayan and Burmese hill species, which move into the lowlands during winter. Despite the fact that many of these species are rare or localized and that the overall number of birds has rapidly declined in the past two decades, bird watching in Bangladesh is very rewarding.
Of the 200 species of mammals, the pride of place goes to the Royal Bengal Tiger of the Sunderbans, the largest block of littoral forests spreading over an area of 6,000 sq. km. Next comes the elephants found mainly in the forests of the Chittagong Hill Tracts districts. South Himalayan black bear and the Malayan bear are also seen here. Six types of deer are found in the hill tracts and the Sunderbans. Of them the spotted deer, barking deer and sambar are the most familiar. Clouded leopard, leopard cat, mongoose, jackal and rhesus monkey are also found.
Among the bovine animals, three species- buffalo, ox and gayal- are found. There are about 150 species of reptiles of which the sea turtle, river tortoise, mud turtle, crocodiles, gavial, python, krait and cobra and common. About 200 species of marine and freshwater fish are also found. Prawns and lobsters are available in plenty for local consumption and export.
Flora life in Bangladesh:
The forest cover of Bangladesh is only about 9 percent. The thickest forests are in the coastal Sunderbans and the hill tracts in the northeast. Extensive areas of Rajshahi, Dinajpur and Kushtia are under mango, litchi, sugarcane and tobacco cultivation.
In the shallow water of the floodplains, ponds and swamps of the country various hydrophytes and floating ferns grow in abundance. Tall grasses present a picturesque site near the banks of the rivers and the marshes.
Around 60% of the Gangetic plain is under rice paddy and jute cultivation. The village homes are usually concealed by the lush green foliage of a wide variety of trees, thickets of bamboo and banana plants. A characteristic feature of the landscape is the presence of a variety of palm and fruit trees.
Each season produces its special variety of flowers in Bangladesh; among them, the prolific Water Hyacinth flourishes. Its carpet of thick green leaves and blue flowers gives the impression that solid ground lies underneath. Other decorative plants, which are widely spread are Jasmine, Water Lily, Rose, Hibiscus, Bougainvillea, Magnolia, and an incredible diversity of wild orchids in the forested areas.
Flickr pictures about flowers of Bangladesh