Components of a Motherboard
Motherboard contains slots, sockets and connectors for connecting various devices. It contains slots for attaching RAM, graphic cards and any other device, and sockets for attaching the microprocessor. It contains a super I/O chip, bus slots for connecting various peripheral devices. A CMOS battery is mounted on the motherboard to keep the system updated with latest date and time. An on-board CPU voltage regulator is provided to regulate power supply to the processor. You can configure the motherboard using jumpers. Connectors The different connectors on the motherboard enable connection of different devices.
The different connectors on the motherboard are:
• System panel connector (1) - Accommodates different front panel system functions such as system power LED, hard disk LED.
• USB headers (2) - Functions as connectors for USB module that can provide two additional USB ports, if the USB ports are inadequate.
• Digital audio connector (3) - Connects to a module that provides digital sound output, instead of analog
• MDC connector (4) - Connects to a modem card module
• Internal audio connectors (5) - Enables connection to CD-ROM or voice modem card
• GAME/MIDI connector (6) - Connects to a GAME/MIDI module that can connect to MIDI devices
• System Management Bus (SMBus) connector (7) - Used to connect SMBus devices
• ATX 12V connector (8) - Connects to the ATX 12V power supply. The power supply plug will fit these connectors in only one orientation
• ATX Power Connector (9) - Connects to the ATX power supply
• CPU and chassis fan connectors (10) - Connects to the system cooling fans
• Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) connectors (11) - Connects to the SATA hard disk drives
• IDE connectors (12) - Connects to the IDE devices
• Serial port connector (13) - Accommodates a second serial port. This connector uses an optional serial port bracket.
• Floppy disk drive connector (14) - Connects to the floppy drive through the floppy drive ribbon cable On Board Disk Drive Connectors.
The hard drive, floppy drive and the CD-ROM drive is connected to the motherboard using the 3rd disk drive connectors. The primary connector used to connect storage devices such lard drive and the CD-ROM drive is the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) port on the motherboard. This is also known as the Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA). The connector is a normal 40 pin connector. A 40 wire connector bus is used to connect the hard drive. Sometimes 80 wire connector bus is also used. The IDE 1 and IDE 2 port on the motherboard is used to connect the hard drive and the CD-ROM drive respectively. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) technology is used to connect the newer versions of hard drive. SATA technology supports a transfer rate of up to 1.5 Gbps. New SATA II version supports transfer rate of 3 Gbps. SATA data cable is a 7 pin connector.
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