Classroom Management: The Business-Academic Approach
A well-managed classroom that is free from disruptions, where students behave in an orderly manner and are involved enthusiastically in learning, exist where teachers have a clear idea of the type of classroom conditions, students’ behavior and instructional activities they wish to produce. This business-academic approach to classroom management was developed by Evertson and Emmer. The emphasis was on the organization and management of students as they engage in academic work.
Evertson and Emmer divide organizing, and managing student work into three major categories - establishments and communication of work assignments; standards and procedures, monitoring of student work; and feedback to students.
Clear Communication of Assignments and Work Requirements
The teacher must define, establish and explain clearly to the learners work assignments, features of work, procedures, and prescribed standards to be met.
- Instruction for assignments: As much as possible the explanation should be made in both oral and written forms. Aside from instructing the pupils/students verbally about their assignments, teachers should post the assigned task on the board. Pupils/Students should copy their assignment in their notebook.
- Standard for forms, neatness, and due dates: It is important that before students/pupils start the learning task, they should be given the guidelines for all assignments to be observed such as type of paper and writing material to be used, pagination, form for headings, and due dates. Pupils/Students will know what is expected of them without having to be told every time.
- Procedures of absent pupils/students: There should be some provisions for make-up work for absent pupils/students.
These must include meeting briefly with pupils/students at a set time and a designated place before or after classes to help them about the assignment.
Monitoring Pupil/Student Work
Monitoring pupil/student work will certainly help the teacher detect them who are having difficulty and related problems and to encourage them to keep on working.
- Monitoring group work: Before assisting a particular pupil/student with his learning task, the teacher must be sure that all learners start the work and are able to do the assignment; otherwise, some pupils/students will not even start the assignment and in some cases, others may start incorrectly.
- Monitoring individual work: Work can be monitored in various ways through circulating around the room and giving feedback when needed, having the learners show their work to the teacher.
- Monitoring completion of work: Procedures for turning in work of the learners must be established and enforced to save time.
- Maintaining records of pupils/students accomplishments: The teacher should keep a record of learners' accomplishments and to incorporate them as part of their grades. The record indicates several headings such as work assignments, projects, daily homework, quizzes and long tests.
Feedback to Learners
Feedback as a tool for an effective classroom management is important for enhancing academic monitoring and managerial procedures. Work in progress, homework, completed assignments and projects, quizzes, long tests, and other work should be corrected within a reasonable period.
Attention to problem is very important for teachers to pay careful attention at the beginning of the school year up to completion of prescribed assignment without justifiable reason should be advised to work harder.
Attention to good work should be properly recognized by giving or providing polite words and praises. Displaying the work learners in a bulletin board that are worthy of recognition can be effective to motivate them to work harder.
One idea of the business-academic approach is that when pupils/students are busy working on their learning tasks, it may be inferred that there is little opportunity for discipline problems to arise. The teacher organizes the learners' work, keeps them on a task, monitors their work, gives the feedback, and holds them accountable by providing rewards and penalties. In effect, everybody is busy and therefore, academic productivity level is high.