Home Brands Products Deals Promo Finder Store Features Forums Add Review What's Knoji? Sign Up Login

Cancer Stages

Knoji reviews products and up-and-coming brands we think you'll love. In certain cases, we may receive a commission from brands mentioned in our guides. Learn more.
general cancer Stages Stage lThe cancer is less than 2 centimeters in size (about 1 inch), and has not spread to lymph nodes in the area (lymph nodes are small almond shaped structures that are found throughout the body which produce and store infection-f

general cancer Stages

 

Stage l

 

The cancer is less than 2 centimeters in size (about 1 inch), and has not spread to lymph nodes in the area (lymph nodes are small almond shaped structures that are found throughout the body which produce and store infection-fighting cells).

Stage II

The cancer is more than 2 centimeters in size, but less than 4 centimeters (less than 2 inches), and has not spread to lymph nodes in the area.

Stage III

Either of the following may be true: The cancer is more than 4 centimeters in size. The cancer is any size but has spread to only one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer. The lymph node that contains cancer measures no more than 3 centimeters (just over one inch).

Stage IV

Any of the following may be true: The cancer has spread to tissues around the lip and oral cavity. The lymph nodes in the area may or may not contain cancer. The cancer is any size and has spread to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer, to lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck, or to any lymph node that measures more than 6 centimeters (over 2 inches). The cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Cancer Types and Stages

1.Bladder Cancer

2.Lung Cancer

3.Leukemia

4.Thyroid Cancer

 

5.Prostate Cancer

 

6.Kidney Cancer

7.Endometrial Cancer

8.Pancreatic Cancer

 

9.Colon and Rectal Cancer

10.Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Cancer

 

11.Breast Cancer

12.Melanoma

1.Stages of bladder cancer

Stage 0a: Ta, N0, M0 The cancer is a noninvasive papillary carcinoma. It has grown toward the hollow center of the bladder but has not grown into the muscle or connective tissue of the bladder wall. It has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.

Stage 0is: Tis, N0, M0 The cancer is a flat, noninvasive carcinoma, also known as flat carcinoma in situ (CIS). The cancer is growing in the lining layer of the bladder only. It has neither grown inward toward the hollow part of the bladder nor has it invaded the muscle or connective tissue of the bladder wall. It has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.

Stage I (T1, N0, M0) The cancer has grown into the layer of connective tissue under the lining layer of the bladder without growing into the thick layer of muscle in the bladder wall. The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or to distant sites.

Stage II (T2, N0, M0) The cancer has grown into the thick muscle layer of the bladder wall, but it has not passed completely through the muscle to reach the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder. The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or to distant sites.

Stage III (T3 or T4a, N0, M0) The cancer has grown completely through the bladder into the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder (T3). It may have spread into the prostate, uterus, or vagina (T4a). It is not growing into the pelvic or abdominal wall. The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or to distant sites.

Stage IV: any of the following:T4b, N0, M0: The cancer has grown through the bladder wall and into the pelvic or abdominal wall (T4b). The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or to distant sites.

OR

Any T, N1 to N3, M0: The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes (N1-3) but not to distant sites.

OR

Any T, any N, M1: The cancer has spread to distant sites such as bones, liver, or lungs (M1)

2. Stages of lung cancer

The cancer is small and localised and there is no cancer in any lymph nodes.

Stage 1 can be divided into 1A and 1B. Stage 1A means the tumour is small (up to 3cm). Stage 1B means the cancer is between 3 to 5cm. It has not spread into any lymph nodes or any other part of the body.

Stage 2

Stage 2 is divided into 2A and 2B.

Stage 2A means that the cancer is

  • Between 5 and 7cm but there are no cancer cells in any lymph nodes OR
  • 5cm or less and there are cancer cells in the lymph nodes close to the affected lung

Stage 2B means that the cancer is between 5 and 7cm and there are cancer cells in the lymph nodes close to the affected lung

Or stage 2B is when the cancer is

  • Larger than 7cm but there are no cancer cells in any lymph nodes OR
  • Not in any lymph nodes but has spread into one or more of the following areas - the chest wall, the muscle under the lung (diaphragm), the phrenic nerve or the layers that cover the heart (mediastinal pleura and parietal pericardium) OR
  • In the main airway (bronchus) close to where it divides to go into each lung OR
  • Making part of the lung collapse OR
  • Any size but there is more than one tumour in the same lobe of the lung

Stage 3

Stage 3 is divided into stages 3A and 3B. In this stage, the whole of the affected lung may have collapsed or may be inflamed due to the build up of mucus. Stage 3A can mean a number of different things. We have 3 diagrams to try to make it easier to understand./

Stage 3A can mean that the cancer is in the lymph nodes close to the lung and the cancer is bigger than 7cm

 

OR stage 3A is when the cancer

  • Has spread into one or more of the following areas - the chest wall, the muscle under the lung (diaphragm), or the layers that cover the heart (mediastinal pleura and parietal pericardium) OR
  • Has spread into lymph nodes close to the heart and main airway on the same side of the chest as the affected lung

Or stage 3A is when the cancer is

  • Any size but has grown into another major structure in your chest, such as the heart, the wind pipe (trachea), the food pipe (oesophagus), the nerve that goes to the voice box (larynx), a spinal bone or a main blood vessel. There may also be cancer cells in lymph nodes close to the affected lung OR
  • In more than one lobe of the same lung and may have spread into lymph nodes close to the affected lung

Stage 3B cancer can also mean a number of different things. It can mean that the cancer has spread into lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest from the affected lung.

OR stage 3B is when the cancer is in the lymph nodes at the centre of the chest (mediastinum) and has spread into one or more of the following areas - the chest wall, the muscle under the lung (diaphragm), the layers that cover the heart (mediastinal pleura and parietal pericardium) or a major structure in your chest – such as the heart, the wind pipe (trachea), the food pipe (oesophagus) or a main blood vessel.

Stage 4

Stage 4 means that the cancer

  • Is in both lungs OR
  • Has spread to another part of your body - for example, the liver or bones OR
  • Has caused a fluid collection around your lung or heart that contains cancer cells - (a malignant pleural effusion) or pericardial effusion

TNM stages of lung cancer

TNM staging takes into account the size of the tumour (T), whether cancer cells have spread into the lymph nodes (N) close to the cancer, and whether the cancer cells have spread anywhere else in the body, metastases (M).

From early 2009, a revised TNM staging system was introduced world wide. We describe the new system below.

Tumour (T)

The T stages for lung cancer are

  • T1a - the tumour is contained within the lung and is smaller than 2cm across
  • T1b - the tumour is contained within the lung and is between 2 and 3 cm across
  • T2 - the tumour is between 3 and 7cm across or has grown into the largest airway (the main bronchus) more than 2cm below the part where it divides to go into each lung or the tumour has grown into the inner lining of the chest cavity (the visceral pleura) or the tumour has made part of the lung collapse. T2 tumours that are 5cm or smaller are classed as T2a and those larger than 5cm are T2b
  • T3 - the tumour is larger than 7cm or has grown into one of the following structures - the chest wall, the central lining of the chest cavity (the mediastinal pleura), the muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity (the diaphragm), or the outer covering of the heart (the pericardium) or the tumour has made the whole lung collapse or there is more than one tumour nodule in the same lobe of the lung
  • T4 - the tumour has grown into one of the following structures - the area between the lungs in the middle of the chest (the mediastinum), the heart, a major blood vessel, the wind pipe (trachea), the area where the main airway divides to go to each lung, the food pipe (oesophagus), a spinal bone, the nerve that controls the voice box, or there are tumour nodules in more than one lobe of the same lung

Nodes (N)

The N stages for lung cancer are

  • N0 - there is no cancer in any lymph nodes
  • N1 - there is cancer in the lymph nodes nearest the affected lung
  • N2 - there is cancer in lymph nodes in the centre of the chest (mediastinum) but on the same side as the affected lung or there is cancer in lymph nodes just under where the windpipe branches off to each lung
  • N3 - there is cancer in lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest from the affected lung or in the lymph nodes above either collar bone or in the lymph nodes at the top of the lung

Metastases (M)

The M stages for lung cancer are

  • M0 - there are no signs that the cancer has spread to another lobe of the lung or any other part of the body
  • M1a - there are tumours in both lungs or fluid around the lung or heart that contains cancer cells - (a malignant pleural effusion) or pericardial effusion
  • M1b - there are lung cancer cells in distant parts of the body, such as the liver or bones

3.Stages of Leukemia cancer

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is classified by one of two cytologic staging systems, which known as Rai Classification and Binet Staging, respectively.

Rai Classification of Leukemia

Rai Classificationseparates chronic lymphocytic leukemia into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories, which correspond with stages 0, I & II, and III & IV, respectively:

  • Rai Stage 0 patients are low risk and have lymphocytosis, a high lymphocyte count defined as more than 15,000 lymphocytes per cubic millimeter (> 15,000 /mm3).
  • Rai Stage I patients are intermediate risk and have lymphocytosis plus enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy).
  • Rai Stage II patients are also intermediate risk but have lymphocytosis plus an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) or enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), with or without lymphadenopathy.
  • Rai Stage III patients are high-risk and have lymphocytosis plus anemia, a low red blood cell count (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL), with or without lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, or splenomegaly.
  • Rai Stage IV patients are also high-risk but have lymphocytosis plus thrombocytopenia, a low number of blood platelets (< 100 – 103 /dL).

Binet Staging of Leukemia

Binet Staging classifies CLL according to the number of lymphoid tissues that are involved (i.e., the spleen and the lymph nodes of the neck, groin, and underarms), as well as the presence of low red blood cell count (anemia) or low number of blood platelets (thrombocytopenia):

  • Binet Stage A patients have fewer than three areas of enlarged lymphoid tissue and do not have anemia or thrombocytopenia. Enlarged lymph nodes of the neck, underarms, and groin, as well as the spleen, are each considered "one group," whether unilateral (one-sided) or bilateral (on both sides).
  • Binet Stage B patients have three pr more areas of enlarged lymphoid tissue and do not have anemia or thrombocytopenia.
  • Binet Stage C patients have anemia and/or thrombocytopenia (platelets <100 – 103 /dL).

4.Stages of Thyroid  cancer

Once cancer of the thyroid is found (diagnosed), more tests will be done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. This is called staging. A doctor needs to know the stage of the disease to plan treatment.

The following stages are used for papillary cancers of the thyroid:

Stage I papillary

Cancer is only in the thyroid and may be found in one or both lobes.

Stage II papillary

In patients younger than 45 years of age:

Cancer has spread beyond the thyroid.

In patients older than 45 years of age:

Cancer is only in the thyroid and larger than 1 centimeter (about 1/2 inch).

Stage III papillary

Cancer is found in patients older than 45 years of age and has spread outside the thyroid (but not outside of the neck) or has spread to the lymph nodes.

Stage IV papillary

Cancer is found in patients older than 45 years of age and has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs and bones.

The following stages are used for follicular cancers of the thyroid:

Stage I follicular

Cancer is only in the thyroid and may be found in one or both lobes.

Stage II follicular

In patients younger than 45 years of age:

Cancer has spread beyond the thyroid.

In patients older than 45 years of age:

Cancer is only in the thyroid and larger than 1 centimeter (about 1/2 inch).

Stage III follicular

Cancer is found in patients older than 45 years of age and has spread outside the thyroid (but not outside of the neck) or to the lymph nodes.

Stage IV follicular

Cancer is found in patients older than 45 years of age and has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs and bones.

Other types or stages of thyroid cancer include the following:

Stage I medullary

Cancer is less than 1 centimeter (about 1/2 inch) in size.

Stage II medullary

Cancer is between 1 and 4 centimeters (about 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches) in size.

Stage III medullary

Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes.

Stage IV medullary

Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Anaplastic

There is no staging system for anaplastic cancer of the thyroid. This type of cancer of the thyroid grows faster than the other types.

5. Stages of  Prostate cancer

 

Stage I

In stage I, cancer is found in the prostate only. The cancer:

  • is found by needle biopsy (such as for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
  • is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
  • cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging. Cancer is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level and the Gleason score are not known.

Stage II

In stage II, cancer is more advanced than in stage I, but has not spread outside the prostate. Stage II is divided into stage IIA and stage IIB.

In stage IIA, cancer:

  • is found by needle biopsy (such as for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or
  • is found by needle biopsy (such as for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
  • is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
  • is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or
  • is found in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7 or lower; or
  • is found in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level and the Gleason score are not known.
  • In stage IIB, cancer:
  • is found in both lobes of the prostate. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or
  • cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging, and the tumor has not spread outside the prostate. The PSA level is 20 or higher and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or
  • cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging, and the tumor has not spread outside the prostate. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score is 8 or higher.

 Stage III

In stage III, cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate on one or both sides and may have spread to the seminal vesicles. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10.

Stage IV

In stage IV, the PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10. Also, cancer:

  • has spread beyond the seminal vesicles to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall; or
  • may have spread to the seminal vesicles or to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes; or
  • has spread to distant parts of the body, which may include lymph nodes or bones. Prostate cancer often spreads to the bones.

6.Stages of  Kidney Cancer

Staging

The most important factor in predicting prognosis is the stage. The stage describes the cancer's size and how deeply it has spread beyond the kidney. The Staging System of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) is sometimes known as TNM system. The letter T followed by a number from 1 to 3 describes the tumor's size and spread to nearby tissues. Higher T numbers indicate a larger tumor and/or more extensive spread to tissues near the kidney. The letter N followed by a number from 0 to 2 indicates whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the kidney and, if so, how many are affected. Lymph nodes are bean-sized collections of immune system cells that help fight infections and cancers. The letter M followed by a 0 or 1 indicates whether or not the cancer has spread to distant organs (for example, the lungs or bones) or to lymph nodes that are not near to the kidneys. The next section summarizes features of the 1997 revision of AJCC stages for cancer. Summary of renal cell cancer AJCC (TNM) stages

Stage I: The tumor is 7 cm (about 2 3/4 inches) or smaller, and limited to the kidney. There is no spread to lymph nodes or distant organs.

Stage II: The tumor is larger than 7.0 cm but still limited to the kidney. There is no spread to lymph nodes or distant organs.

Stage III: There are several combinations of T and N categories that are included in this stage. These include tumors of any size, with or without spread to fatty tissue around the kidney, with or without spread into the large veins leading from the kidney to the heart, with spread to one nearby lymph node, but without spread to distant lymph node or other organs. Stage III also includes tumors with spread to fatty tissue around the kidney and/or spread into the large veins leading from the kidney to the heart, that have not spread to any lymph nodes or other organs.

Stage IV: There are several combinations of T, N, and M categories that included in this stage. This stage includes any cancers that have spread directly through the fatty tissue and the fascia ligament-like tissue that surrounds the kidney. Stage IV also includes any cancer that has spread to more than one lymph node near the kidney, to any lymph node not near the kidney, or to any other organs such as the lungs, bone, or brain. Detailed definitions of renal cell cancer T, N, M categories and stage groupings

Primary tumor (T):

TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed

T0: No evidence of primary tumor

T1: Tumor 7 cm or less, limited to kidney

T2: Tumor greater than 7 cm, limited to kidney

T3: Tumor extends into major veins/adrenal/ perinephric tissue; not beyond Gerota's fascia

T3a: Tumors with direct adrenal involvement/perinephric fat but not beyond Gerota's fascia

T3b: Tumor extends into renal vein(s) or IVC below the diaphragm

T3c: IVC involvement above diaphragm

T4: Tumor invades beyond Gerota's fascia

N - Regional lymph nodes

NX: Regional nodes cannot be assessed

N0: No regional lymph node metastasis

N1: Metastasis in a single regional lymph node

N2: Metastasis in more than one regional lymph node

M - Distant metastasis

MX: Distant metastasis cannot be assessed

M0: No distant metastasis

M1: Distant metastasis

 7. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

Stage I

Stage I endometrial cancer is carcinoma confined to the corpus uteri.

Stage IA: tumor limited to endometrium.

Stage IB: invasion to less than 50% of the myometrium.

Stage IC: invasion to greater than 50% of the myometrium.

Stage II

Stage II endometrial cancer involves the corpus and the cervix but has not extended outside the uterus.

Stage IIA: endocervical glandular involvement only.

Stage IIB: cervical stromal invasion.

Stage III

Stage III endometrial cancer extends outside of the uterus but is confined to the true pelvis.

Stage IIIA: tumor invades serosa and/or adnexa and/or positive peritoneal cytology.

Stage IIIB: vaginal metastases.

Stage IIIC: metastases to pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph nodes.

Stage IV

Stage IV endometrial cancer involves the bladder or bowel mucosa or has metastasized to distant sites.

Stage IVA: tumor invasion of bladder and/or bowel mucosa

Stage IVB: distant metastases, including intra-abdominal and/or inguinal lymph nodes.

Endometrial cancer can be grouped with regard to the degree of differentiation of the adenocarcinoma as follows:

G1: no more than 5% of a nonsquamous or nonmorular solid growth pattern.

G2: 6% to 50% of a nonsquamous or nonmorular solid growth pattern.

G3: greater than 50% of a nonsquamous or nonmorular solid growth pattern.

FIGO staging for endometrial cancer:

  • Stage IAG123: tumor limited to endometrium.
  • Stage IB G123: invasion to less than 50% of the myometrium
  • Stage IC G123: invasion to greater than 50% of the myometrium
  • Tumor extends beyond the uterus, within the pelvis
  • Stage IIAG123: endocervical glandular involvement only.
  • Stage IIB G123: cervical stromal invasion.
  • Stage IIIA G123: tumor invades serosa and/or adnexa and/or positive peritoneal cytology.
  • Stage IIIBG123: vaginal metastases.
  • Stage IIIC G123: metastases of pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • Stage IVA G123: tumor invasion of bladder and/or bowel mucosa.
  • Stage IVB: distant metastases including intra-abdominal and/or inguinal lymph nodes.

8.Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

  • Stage I: Cancer is found only in the pancreas itself and not in other organs.
  • Stage II: Cancer has spread to nearby organs, such as the duodenum or bile duct, but has not entered the lymph nodes.
  • Stage III: Cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the pancreas. The cancer may or may not have spread to nearby organs.
  • Stage IVA: Cancer has spread to organs, such as the stomach, spleen, and colon, that are near the pancreas, but it has not spread to distant organs, such as the liver or lungs.
  • Stage IVB: Cancer has spread to organs, such as the stomach, spleen, or colon, that are near the pancreas or to places far away from the pancreas, such as the liver or lungs.
  • Recurrent: The cancer has come back (recurred) after it has been treated. It may come back in the pancreas or in another part of the body.

9.Stages of Colon and Rectal Cancer

Stage 0

This is the earliest stage of colorectal cancer. The cancer only involves the lining, or mucosa, of the colon or rectum and is confined to polyp(s) (tissue bulging from the surface of an organ). When the polyps are removed during a colonoscopy (a procedure known as a polypectomy), the chance of them progressing to later stages of cancer is eliminated.

Stage I

Stage I colon cancer involves more than just the inner lining of the colon. The polyp has progressed to a tumor, and extends into the wall of the colon or rectum. Treatment can include surgery to remove the section of the colon that is cancerous. This type of surgery is called a resection. The healthy, non-cancerous sections of the colon are reconnected again. The five-year survival rate is 95 percent.

Stage II

Stage II colorectal cancer is when the cancer has spread beyond the colon to the tissue that surrounds the colon but has not spread to lymph nodes. Cancer spreading in this manner from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. A resection surgery may also be used to treat this stage of cancer. The five-year survival rate drops dramatically to 60 percent.

Stage III Cancer that has spread outside the colon and on to the lymph nodes in the area surrounding the colon is known as Stage III. In this stage, the cancer has not spread to other organs in the body, and treatment is more aggressive. Surgical resection of the colon, chemotherapy, and other medical therapies may be necessary. The five-year survival rate is 35 to 60 percent.

Stage IV

In this stage, the cancer had spread to other organs in the body such as the lungs or liver. In addition to a surgical resection and chemotherapy, radiation treatment and surgery to remove other affected parts of the body may be necessary. At this stage, there is only a 3 percent chance of reaching the five-year survival time

10.Stages of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Cancer

The following stages are used to describe non-Hodgkin's lymphoma:

Stage I: Cancer is found in only one lymph node area or in only one area or organ outside of the lymph nodes.

Stage II: Either of the following may be true:

Cancer is found in two or more lymph node areas on the same side of the diaphragm (the thin muscle under the lungs that helps us breathe).

Cancer is found in only one area or organ outside of the lymph nodes and in the lymph nodes around it. Other lymph node areas on the same side of the diaphragm may also have cancer.

In contiguous stage II cancer, the positive lymph node areas are next to one another; in non-contiguous stage II, the positive lymph nodes are not next to each other, but are still on the same side of the diaphragm.

Stage III: Cancer is found in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm. The cancer may also have spread to an area or organ near the lymph node areas and/or to the spleen.

Stage IV: Either of the following may be true:

Cancer has spread in more than one spot to an organ or organs outside the lymph system. Cancer cells may or may not be found in the lymph nodes near these organs.

Cancer has spread to only one organ outside the lymph system, but lymph nodes far away from that organ are involved.

11.Stages of Melanoma Cancer

Stage 1 of melanoma is thin and the epidermis usually appears scraped. This stage of skin cancer is subdivided into two other categories. These additional categories describe the thickness of the tumor. Stage 1a is less than 1.0 mm and has no ulceration. Stage 1b is less than 1.0 mm but has ulceration. It is also considered to be in stage 1b if it is 1.01 - 2.0 mm even if it does not involve ulceration. In this stage and stage 2 the melanoma has not yet spread to the lymph nodes.

Stage 2 is also subdivided into three more categories that signify the thickness and the existence or non-existence of ulceration. The tumor in stage 2a is 1.01 - 2.0 mm with ulceration or 2.01 - 4.0 mm without ulceration. Stage 3b has a tumor thickness of 2.01 with ulceration or a thickness of more than 4.0 without ulceration.

When this type of skin cancer advances to stage 3 a significant change occurs. At this stage, the melanoma tumor has spread to the lymph nodes. This is a much more serious stage of the disease because when healthy, the lymph nodes fight disease, cancer and some other infections.

Patients with stage 3 of this cancer have melanoma that has spread into lymph nodes near the primary tumor. This stage also involves in-transit metastasis that has skin or connective tissue that is more than 2 centimeters from the original tumor. However, at this point it has not spread past the regional lymph nodes.

In stage 4, the melanoma has spread to lymph nodes that are a distance from the original tumor or to internal organs. These organs are most often the lung, liver, brain, bone and then the gastrointestinal tract.

When diagnosed with skin cancer, it is important to consult with your doctor concerning the degree or stage of melanoma that you may have. A variety of diagnostic techniques will likely be used to determine the stage of your skin cancer. Most stage 1 and stage 2 melanomas should not cause too much worry because they can most often be cured through surgery. There is little need to worry about getting later stages of melanoma just because you once suffered through the early stages

12.Stages of  Breast Cancer

 Stage 0—Carcinoma in situ

In stage zero breast cancer, atypical cells have not spread outside of the ducts or lobules, the milk producing organs, into the surrounding breast tissue. Referred to as carcinoma in situ, it is classified in two types:

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)— very early cancer that is highly treatable and survivable. If left untreated or undetected, it can spread into the surrounding breast tissue.

Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS)—not a cancer but an indicator that identifies a woman as having an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

Stage I—Early stage invasive breast cancer

In stage 1 breast cancer, the cancer is no larger than two centimeters (approximately an inch) and has not spread to surrounding lymph nodes or outside the breast.

Stage II

Stage 2 breast cancer is divided into two categories according to the size of the tumor and whether or not it has spread to the lymph nodes:

Stage II A Breast Cancer—the tumor is less than two centimeters(approximately an inch) and has spread up to three auxiliary underarm lymph nodes. Or, the tumor has grown bigger than two centimeters, but no larger than five centimeters (approximately two inches) and has not spread to surrounding lymph nodes.

Stage II B Breast Cancer— the tumor has grown to between two and five centimeters (approximately one to two inches) and has spread to up to three auxiliary underarm lymph nodes. Or, the tumor is larger than five centimeters, but has not spread to the surrounding lymph nodes.

Stage IIIStage 3 breast cancer is also divided in to two categories:

Stage III A Breast Cancer—the tumor is larger than two centimeters but smaller than five centimeters (approximately one to two inches) and has spread to up to nine auxiliary underarm lymph nodes.

Stage III B Breast Cancer— the cancer has spread to tissues near the breast including the skin, chest wall, ribs, muscles, or lymph nodes in the chest wall or above the collarbone.

Stage IV

In stage 4 breast cancer, the cancer has spread to other organs or tissues, such as the liver, lungs, brain, skeletal system, or lymph nodes near the collarbone.

you can see more about Breast Cancer

https://knoji.com/breast-cancer-2/

6 comments

Kevin Forde
0
Posted on Nov 10, 2011
Usman Majeed
0
Posted on Apr 25, 2011
Tammy Hammock
0
Posted on Apr 25, 2011
john doe
0
Posted on Feb 27, 2011
Akum Tsewole
0
Posted on Feb 25, 2011
James R. Coffey
0
Posted on Feb 7, 2011

About This Article

Usman Majeed

Explore Top Fitness Equipment Brands

Expand more
Top-ranked fitness equipment brands